Chandrasekhar Azad चंद्रशेखर आजाद (July 23, 1906 – February 27, 1931) was an Indian revolutionary and the mentor of Bhagat Singh. Chandrasekhar Azad is considered one of the most famous Indian revolutionaries, along with Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru, Ram Prasad Bismil, and Ashfaqullah Khan.
|July 23, 1906–February 27, 1931|
|Place of birth:||Badarka, Unnao, Uttar Pradesh, India|
|Place of death:||Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India|
|Movement:||Indian Independence movement|
|Major organizations:||Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Kirti Kissan Party and Hindustan Socialist Republican Association|
Chandrashekhar Azad, often called, Pandit ji was the founder of Garam Dal. He was the first to start the revolutionary struggle with arms against the oppressive Britishers. Chandershekhar a devout brahmin believed that his dharma was to fight for others.
Chandrashekhar said a soldier never relinquishes his weapon. Hence Chandrashekhar died with his weapon in his hand fighting with British.
Involved in Kakori Train Robbery (1926), the attempt to blow up the Viceroy's train (1926), and the shooting of Saunders at Lahore (1928) to avenge the killing of Lala Lajpatrai He formed Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. He was the guru for revolutionaries such as Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Batukeshwar Bhatt, and Rajguru
Chandra Shekhar Azad was born on July 23, 1906 in village Bhavra in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh. His parents were Pandit Sitaram Tiwari and Jagarani Devi. He received his early schooling in Bhavra. For higher studies he went to the Sanskrit Pathashala at Varanasi. He was an ardent follower of Hanuman and once disguised himself as a priest in a hanuman temple to escape the dragnet of British police.
Chandrashekhar Azad was deeply troubled by the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in Amritsar in 1919. In 1921, when Mahatma Gandhi launched Non-Cooperation movement, Chandrasekhar Azad actively participated in revolutionary activities. He received his first punishment at the age of fifteen. Chandra Shekhar was caught while indulging in revolutionary activities. When the magistrate asked him his name, he said "Azad" (meaning free). Chandrashekhar Azad was sentenced to fifteen lashes. With each stroke of the whip the young Chandrasekhar shouted "Bharat Mata Ki Jai"["Hail The Motherland!"] and "Gandhi ki Jai" ["Hail Gandhi!"] From then on Chandrashekhar assumed the title of Azad and came to known as Chandrashekhar Azad. Chandrashekhar Azad vowed that he would never be arrested by the British police and would die as free man.
After the suspension of non-cooperation movement Chandrashekhar Azad was attracted towards more aggressive and revolutionary ideals. He committed himself to complete independence by any means. Chandrashekhar Azad and his compatriots would target British officials known for their oppressive actions against ordinary people and freedom fighters. Chandrashekhar Azad was involved in Kakori Train Robbery (1926), the attempt to blow up the Viceroy's train (1926), and the shooting of Saunders at Lahore (1928) to avenge the killing of Lala Lajpatrai.
Along with Bhagat Singh and other compatriots like Sukhdev and Rajguru, Chandrashekhar Azad formed the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HRSA). HRSA was committed to complete Indian independence and socialist principles for India's future progress.
Chandrashekhar Azad was a terror for British police. He was on their hit list and the British police badly wanted to capture him dead or alive. On February 27, 1931 Chandrashekhar Azad met two of his comrades at the Alfred Park Allah bad. He was betrayed by an informer who had informed the British police. The police surrounded the park and ordered Chandrashekhar Azad to surrender. Chandrashekhar Azad fought alone valiantly and killed three policemen. But finding himself surrounded and seeing no route for escape, Chandrashekhar Azad shot himself. Thus he kept his pledge of not being caught alive.
Chandrasekhar Azad was born on July 23, 1906 in Badarka village (Unnao, Uttar Pradesh) to Pandit Sita Ram Tiwari and Jagrani Devi. Earlier going by the moniker Chandrasekhar Tiwari, after a court incident, he took the name Azad. He received his early schooling in Bhavra District Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh. For higher education he went to the Sanskrit Pathashala at Varanasi. He was an ardent follower of Hanuman and disguised himself as a priest in a Hanuman temple to escape the British dragnet in pre-independence India.
He vowed that he would never fall in the hands of British, preferring valiant death against vegetative life. He in fact lived a free-life, never ever being nabbed by the British.
Young Azad was one of the young generation of Indians when Mahatma Gandhi launched the Non-Cooperation Movement. But many were disillusioned with Gandhi's suspension of the struggle in 1922 due to the Chauri Chaura massacre of 22 policemen. Although Gandhi was appalled by the brutal violence, Azad did not feel that violence was unacceptable in the struggle, especially in view of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919, when the British Army units killed hundreds of unarmed civilians and wounded thousands in Amritsar which deeply influenced the young Azad and his contemporaries.
At one point he was arrested while a teenager. When asked his name by the police, he replied Azad, which means "free" in Urdu. He once claimed that, while named "Azad," he would never be taken alive by police. Azad and others had committed themselves to absolute independence by any means. He was most famous for the Kakori train robbery in 1925 and the assassination of the assistant superintendent of police, , in 1928. Azad and his compatriots would target British officials known for their oppressive actions against ordinary people, or for beating and torturing arrested revolutionaries.
Azad was also a believer in socialism as the basis for India's future.
In his very brief life of only 25 years, Chandrashekhar Azad had made Jhansi his organisation's hub for a considerable duration. He chose the forest of Orchha (15 kilometers from Jhansi) for practising shooting. He was a brilliant shooter and he used to train other members of his group here. Near the forests, on the banks of a small river called Saataar, near the temple of Lord hanuman, he established a small hut. He started living there in the disguise of Pandit Harishankar Brahmachari. He started teaching kids of the residents of nearby village , and established good rapport with the local people. The village Dhimarpura is now named after him and is known as . In Jhansi, he learnt how to drive a car at Bundelkhand Motor Garage in Sadar Bazaar, in cantonement area. In Jhansi, he met , , and they all became integral part of his revolutionary group. The then congress leaders from Jhansi Pandit Raghunath Vinayak Dhulekar and Pandit Sitaram Bhaskar Bhagwat were also close aides of Chandrashekhar Azad. Chandrashekhar Azad stayed in 's house at Nai Basti and Pandit Sitaram Bhaskar Bhagwat's house in Nagra. Jhansi was a safe place in Chandrashekhar Azad's words and as soon as he left Jhansi, he became a victim of betrayal from one of his former group members.
With Bhagat Singh
The Non co-operation movement in 1923. In the aftermath of the Kakori train robbery in 1925, the British clamped down on revolutionary activities. Sentenced to death for their participation were Ramprasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Roshan Singh and Rajendra Lahiri. Two escaped capture, Sunderlal Gupta as well as Azad. Azad reorganized the HRA with the help of secondary revolutionaries like Shiva Varma and Mahaveer Singh. He is also an associate of Rasabihariboss. Azad, along with Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru, transformed the HRA into the HSRA (Hindustan Socialist Republican Association) in 1927, whose goal was complete Indian independence based on socialist principles.was formed by Sachindranath Sanyal just after one year of the
Chandrashekhar Azad was a terror for British police. He was on their hit list and the British police badly wanted to capture him dead or alive. On February 27, 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad met two comrades at Alfred Park in Allahabad. He was betrayed to the British police by an informer. The police surrounded the park and ordered Chandrashekhar Azad to surrender. Chandrashekhar Azad fought alone, killing three policemen. Being surrounded with no possible escape, Chandrashekhar Azad shot himself, thereby keeping his pledge to not be captured alive. However, he was such a firce fighter and so loyal and committed to his cause that the Indian soldiers who saw him die only had the courage to approach his dead body, after 20 minutes. This was because, Chandrasekhar Azad induced the guilt of Indian soldiers and policemen working for the British government, whereever he went, claiming that 'they were not of the true Indian Blood'.
Azad is a hero to many Indians today. Alfred Park was renamed Chandrasekhar Azad Park, as have been scores of schools, colleges, roads and other public institutions across India. Ever since Manoj Kumar's film, Shaheed Bhagat Singh, in 1964, Azad's character has become central to any film or commemoration of the life of Bhagat Singh. He was played by Sunny Deol in 2002, in the movie 23rd March 1931: Shaheed. In the movie "The Legend of Bhagat Singh", starring Ajay Devgan, Azad (played by Akhilendra Mishra) had a prominent role and was shown to kill himself rather than dying by the hands of foreigners.
The patriotism of Azad, Sukhdev, Bismil and Ashfaqulla Khan was also depicted in Rang De Basanti, a contemporary Bollywood film starring Aamir Khan that released in February 2006. The movie, which draws parallels between the lives of young revolutionaries, such as Azad and Bhagat Singh, and today's youth, also dwells upon the lack of appreciation among Indian youth today for the sacrifices made by these men. Chandrashekhar Azad's role was played by Aamir Khan and it displayed the zeal in the man. The film also depicts the famous Kakori train robbery. In its climax, Azad is shown to shoot himself rather than dying in the hands of British.